Keynesian principles are so pervasive in economic dialogue that other perspectives are often eschewed by applied economists and policymakers attempting to understand why and how markets thrive, fail, or tenuously tread water. One must note that Keynesian thought is rooted, first and foremost, in Historicism. The Historical School of Economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the development of economic thought over time. It was founded in the 19th century by German scholars such as Wilhelm Roscher, Karl Knies, and Gustav Schmoller, who sought to understand the historical roots of economic ideas and questions. This school of thought has been influential in the fields of economic theory, political economy, and the history of economic thought. The Historical School of Economics views economics as an evolving field, where ideas are constantly being modified and adapted. It emphasizes the importance of context and history in our understanding of economic phenomena. The school examines both the theoretical foundations of economics and its practical applications, as well as its ethical implications. It has been especially influential in the German-speaking world but has also had an important influence in other countries. All in all, the Historical School of Economics provides us with a deeper understanding of economics, and of how economic thought has evolved over the centuries.
Marxian Economics is a theory developed by Karl Marx in the 19th century that focuses on the exploitation of the working class by the capitalist system. According to Marxian Economics, the main source of profit for capitalists comes from the surplus value of labor. This is the value created by workers through their labor that is then taken by the capitalists and not shared with the workers. Marxian Economics also argues that the capitalist system is inherently unstable, and that it will eventually lead to its own collapse. This can be seen in the current global economic crisis, which has been caused by the exploitation of workers and the increasing disparity between the rich and the poor. Marxian Economics has been a powerful tool for understanding the past, present, and future of the economy, and provides a valuable perspective for those seeking to create a more equitable and just economic system. Neoclassical Economics is a branch of economics that began in the late 19th century. It is based on the ideas of classic economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo, but with a few modern adaptations. Neoclassical Economists place an emphasis on the role of supply and demand in the market, as well as on the importance of individual choice and rational decision making. They also believe that the free market is the most effective way to allocate resources and create economic growth. Neoclassical Economics is the dominant school of thought in economics today, and its ideas have been used to inform economic policy for many years. Its focus is on the rational and efficient use of resources, which is why so many governments and organizations use it to shape their economic policies. Neoclassical Economics is an important concept to understand, as it has shaped the way in which economics is taught and studied today.
The Austrian School of Economics is one of the most influential schools of thought when it comes to economic theory. It was founded in the late 19th century by a group of economists and thinkers, including Carl Menger, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, and Ludwig von Mises. The core tenets of their ideas are still relevant today, and they continue to be studied by economists everywhere. The Austrian School of Economics emphasizes individualism, the importance of markets and entrepreneurship, and the role of the state in economic affairs. They also argue that money should be backed by gold, and they strongly oppose government intervention in the economy. The Austrian School has had a major influence on the development of economics and economic thought. It has inspired a wide range of economists, from Friedrich von Hayek to Milton Friedman. Their ideas provide a unique perspective and can help us understand the complexities of the modern economy. Keynesian economics is an economic school of thought proposed by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. It focuses on the role of government spending and how it affects the economy. According to Keynesian theory, government intervention in the economy is necessary to promote long-term economic growth. Keynesian economics suggests that government fiscal policy, such as taxes and public spending, can be used to manage the economy and soften the effects of recessions or depressions. This theory also supports the idea of countercyclical fiscal policies, which involve reducing taxes and increasing public spending during an economic downturn. In contrast to classical economic theory, which emphasizes the importance of free markets and private sector decisions, Keynesian economics puts more emphasis on public sector intervention. Although Keynesian economics has been debated since its origination, it remains an important economic school of thought in today’s world.
Sources and Further Reading:
Arnsperger, Christian, and Yanis Varoufakis. “What is neoclassical economics.” Post-autistic economics review 38.1 (2006).
Blinder, Alan S. “The fall and rise of Keynesian economics.” Economic record 64.4 (1988): 278- 294.
Boettke, Peter J. The Elgar companion to Austrian economics. Edward Elgar Publishing, 1998.
Campagnolo, Gilles. Criticisms of classical political economy: Menger, Austrian economics and the German historical school. Routledge, 2012.
Dugger, William M. “Methodological differences between institutional and neoclassical economics.” Journal of economic issues 13.4 (1979): 899-909.
Eatwell, John, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, eds. Marxian economics. Springer, 1990.
Gordon, Robert J. “What is new-Keynesian economics?.” Journal of economic literature 28.3(1990): 1115-1171.
Henry, John F. The Making of Neoclassical Economics (Routledge Revivals). Routledge, 2012.
Howard, Michael Charles, and John Edward King. “A history of Marxian economics, volume II.” A History of Marxian Economics, Volume II. Princeton University Press, 2014.
Itoh, Makoto. Value and crisis: Essays on Marxian economics in Japan. Monthly Review Press, 2020.
Jahan, Sarwat, Ahmed Saber Mahmud, and Chris Papageorgiou. “What is Keynesian economics.” International Monetary Fund 51.3 (2014): 53-54.
Littlechild, Stephen. Austrian economics. Edward Elgar Publishing, 1990.
Morgan, Jamie. What is Neoclassical Economics?. Taylor & Francis, 2015.
Pearson, Heath. “Was there really a German historical school of economics?.” History of Political Economy 31.3 (1999): 547-562.
Roemer, John E. Analytical foundations of Marxian economic theory. Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Rothbard, Murray N. “Praxeology: The methodology of Austrian economics.” The foundations of modern Austrian economics (1976): 19-39.
Shionoya, Yuichi, ed. The German historical school: the historical and ethical approach to economics. Vol. 40. Routledge, 2000.
Taylor, Thomas C. An introduction to Austrian economics. Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1980.
Tribe, Keith. “Historical schools of economics: German and English.” A companion to the history of economic thought (2003): 215.
Vaughn, Karen I. Austrian economics in America: The migration of a tradition. Cambridge University Press, 1998.